To what extent did the 1871 massacre at Camp Grant change the conflicts between the settlers and the Native Americans?

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The Camp Grant massacre was a massacre of Apache Indians by Tohono O’odha Indians and whites, who carried out this act with the encouragement of the citizens of Tucson, Arizona. It is estimated that over 100 Apache men, women, and children were murdered, attacked as they slept in a camp administered by the U.S. Army. The men responsible for planning the massacre were put on trial, but nobody was found guilty. In the short term, this tragic event led to armed conflict between the United States government and the Apache peoples, who continued to face incursions onto their lands by whites. As whites continued to pour into Arizona, and the Apache, as well as other Indian peoples in the region (including the Tohono O’odha), found themselves forced onto federal reservations. Sadly, this incident was fairly typical of interactions between white settlers and Native peoples in the West. It joins Sand Creek and Wounded Knee as another example of mass murder of Native peoples.

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