Outer layer of elements as lithium, sodium and potassium, contains a single electron. These elements combine very easily with other elements (transferring them the electron from their last layer) forming a large number of chemical compounds.
Lithium is found very little spread in nature. The accompanying small quantities in some rocks potassium and sodium, lithium and aluminum silicate, LiAl [SiO3] 2, fluoro-or hydroxy-aluminosilicates of lithium, potassium and aluminum Li3K2Al3 [Al (Si3O10) 2 (OH, F) 4] , and a variety of lepidolit much iron, etc..
Lithium decompose water and ignites in air forming lithium oxide, Li2O.Heated in hydrogen atmosphere formes lithium hydride, LIH, which is the most stable of the alkali metal hydrides.
Lithium is the only alkali metal that combines directly with nitrogen in cool atmosphere, forming nitrides, Li3N, also directly combine with halogens to form halides in hot atmosphere, LIX, sulfur, forming sulfur, Li2S, with carbon, forming carbides, Li2C2, with silicon, forming silicides, Li6Si2, etc..
Lithium carbonate used for making special variety of
tough glass, which is weather proof.
Lithium chloride used in air conditioning plants to
regulate the humidity.
Lithium bromide is used in medicine as sedative.
Lithium stearate is used for making automobile grease.
Lithium bicarbonate and Lithium salicylate are used for
treating rheumatism because Lithium urate is soluble in
Lithium aluminium hydride (LiAlH4) is used as reducing
agent in synthetic organic chemistry.
Lithium is a chemical element with symbol Li. It has atomic number of 3 and atomic weight of 6.941. It is the lightest metal with relative density equal to half. It is soft and silvery white. It combines easily with water releasing oxygen.
Lithium is used most extensively for making small batteries used in electronic equipments such as camera, watch, calculator, and pacemaker.
Compounds of lithium are used for making many different products such as ceramics, enamels, glass and lubricants for high temperature applications. Small quantities of lithium compounds are also used in making rubber products and dyes for textiles. Lithium carbonate is also used as medicine for treating a mental illness called bipolar disorder or manic depression.