To what extent were the 1920s a period of social and economic progress in the USA, in an essay?
Of course, we cannot write an essay for you, but we can give you some ideas that you can work with. I would argue that the 1920s seemed like a time of social and economic progress but that they were not truly such a time.
The 1920s seemed like a time of progress. These were the "Roaring '20s" where many people were getting rich. It was a time when women were coming to be able to have more of public lives, going out and having fun. It was the time of the Harlem Renaissance for African Americans.
But all of this hid a harder reality. The crash of 1929 showed that the economic progress wasn't built on a solid foundation. The anti-immigrant sentiment as shown in the laws restricting immigration and in the rise of the KKK showed that the country was not progressing in many ways.
These things show me, at least, that the 1920s were not truly a time of progress.