I have had to edit your question down to focus on one element of the plot structure of this great play. You are not allowed to ask multiple questions.
The resolution of this play in my opinion comes after Hamlet has killed Claudius and when he himself dies, and then Fortinbras enters and assumes the position of King of Denmark. This is a resolution because finally Hamlet has achieved the escape that he has always wanted throughout the play, but also he gains this escape having gained the revenge that he has spent so long and agonised so much about achieving. The arrival of Fortinbras and his seizing of the Danish crown likewise resolves the question of the future of the Danish kingdom, and the arrival of the English Ambassador reveals how Hamlet's wishes for the fates of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern have been carried out. Horatio is left alone to tell the the tale of Hamlet, and Hamlet is carried out in the manner that he deserved.