The major story line of Gulliver's time in Lilliput revolves around Gulliver's relations with the powerful Lilliputians.
Because of his great size, Gulliver comes to the attention of the King and is used in ways (carrying messages, for example) in which his size is useful. The most important thing he does with his size is to get involved in Lilliput's conflict with the neighboring island of Blefuscu. Gulliver prevents an invasion of Lilliput by swimming over and towing Blefuscu's fleet away.
After this, Gulliver's enemies are so jealous of him that they arrange to have him charged with and convicted of treason. At that point he flees Lilliput.
For more, follow the link.
In Gulliver's Travels, eye, image, light are the ruler in a world of proportions. In the sense of the same optical effects, we can say that during the first Gulliver's travels, Swift uses the telescope. In Lilliput, the people are small, not only in their body stature but in the soul, also. At first, Gulliver has illusive impressions about the king-dwarf and his court, but gradually, he realizes more about the truth, depicting to the reader whole cortege of defects of the English court and aristocracy of that time: vanity, incalculable ambition , despotism, ingratitude, intrigue,struggle for power , corruption, flattery, hypocrisy. On the second trip, Swift seems to resort to magnifying optical devices: a magnifying glass, microscope.
Gulliver's experiences in both world are emphasizing the ideea of integrate attempts failing of an individual, in a society where he doesn't fit at all.
The culture of that period, Enlightenment, was presenting the human kind more as a pure soul than a body, the human aspects captured and described in Gulliver's travel, having the aim to present human condition in a light more real, harsh and unfeeling, as it is, and less unreal and artificial decorated than the tendency of presentation of culture of eighteenth-century was.