What experience, starting in 1090 and ending in 1492, prepared Spanish culture to be so efficient at conquest?

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La Reconquista prepared the Kingdom of Spain for sustained conquests and established a flexible system of incorporating peoples and territory into their system of government. The Iberian Peninsula was conquered by Islamic empires since as early as 711. The borders between Christian and Muslim nations changed countless times in the intervening centuries, but finally, in the fifteenth century, Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella I of Castille married and unified their kingdoms and, within a short period of time, defeated the last Muslim ruler on the Iberian peninsula in Grenada.

The Reconquista developed an ideological and political system that rewarded conquerors with lands, converted non-Christians or persecuted those who would not covert, and developed a military culture of conquest, all employed against the Indian empires of Central and South America immediately after the Reconquista concluded, in 1492.

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