Examples of structural grammar applied to sentence analysis will show the syntax relationships between speech units that constitute the structure of each sentence. The smallest speech units that determine syntax relationships in language are phonemes and morphemes and words. Sentence element word classes and syntax relationships are designated by standard symbols used for structural grammar analysis. The two examples that follow the symbols (below) have limited detail since diagrams aren't supported by this format:
(Sb) is the symbol for sentence Subject. (P) is for sentence Predicate. (H) is for Head. (M) is for Modifier. (V) is for Verb. (C) is for Complement. (Sub) is for subordinate component. (D) is for Dependent component. These are additional standard symbols, Det: determiner; pres: present tense; Adj: adjective; Prn: pronoun; Aux: auxiliary verb.
The can has a broken tab.
The can (Sb) has a broken tab. (P)
The (M) can (H) has (V) a broken tab. (D)
... a broken (M) tab. (H)
The (Det) can (Noun) has (Verb, pres) a (Det) broken (Adj) tab (Noun).
I will tag the black horse.
I (Sb) will tag the black horse. (P)
I (H) will tag (V) the black horse. (D)
... the black (M) horse. (H)
I (Prn) will (Aux) tag (Verb, pres) the (Det) black (Adj) horse (Noun).
In structural grammar, phonemes are the smallest speech unit of language that determine word meaning: bit is a different thing from mit and kit because of the phonemes /b/ and /m/ and /k/, although all these words are in the noun word class. The verbs tap and tag can be changed to the noun word class tab (e.g., soda can tab) and tack by the substitution of the phonemes /b/ and /ck/, substituting for the phonemes /p/ or /g/. This change in word class results in a change in syntax relationships.
Morphemes are the smallest grammatical speech unit of language that determine meaning, word class and syntax relationship. For example, the morpheme free, of the adjective word class, can be changed to the noun word class by the addition of the morpheme -dom, a noun forming morpheme, forming the noun freedom.
Syntax relationships between speech words carry the meaning communicated by language. Structural grammar does not, however, consider semantic meaning a function of grammar. The word class and the syntax relationships between words can be changed by the addition, removal or substitution of phonemes and morphemes.