What are some examples of personificaton in the poem "If" by Rudyard Kipling?

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Personification is the attribution of human-like traits to nonhuman subjects. Sometimes writers use personification to describe inanimate objects or nonhuman animals. In this poem, Kipling applies personification to abstractions and intangible phenomena. Most of these cases have already been mentioned. But let's review them, and add an additional example.

1. "If you can dream—and not make dreams your master;"

This evokes the master/slave relationship between two human beings.

2. "If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster /And treat those two impostors just the same;"

"Triumph" and "Disaster" are characterized as if they are people (imposters). And in a longstanding tradition of English literature, Kipling highlights his characterization by treating the words as proper nouns (capitalizing them).

3. "Except the Will which says to them: 'Hold on!'"

A person's will is characterized as having the power of speech.

4. "If you can fill the unforgiving minute…"

The minute is described as "unforgiving"...

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