Literary devices are methods used by writers to convey a sentiment or mood and to create a specific effect. This helps the reader in analyzing and interpreting the text so that the author's purpose becomes clear. In the final scene of Macbeth, Shakespeare has employed a variety of such devices, of which a few are mentioned below:
The indirect reference to a significant person, act or event of cultural, historical or literary significance.
Why should I play the Roman fool...
In this line, Macbeth is alluding to a Roman soldier who would, as per their custom, rather commit suicide than suffer the ignominy of surrendering to his enemy. He is not prepared to take his own life since he sees this as a foolish act. He would rather courageously fight to the death.
The repetition of a word or phrase, especially at the beginning of a sentence, to create a literary effect.
And be these juggling fiends no more believed,
That palter with us in a double sense;
That keep the word of promise...
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