Globalization is a complicated concept. In its strictest sense, Globalization is the movement of products, ideas and cultures between nations due to well developed transport and telecommunication systems. It is not merely an economic process, it also entails exchange of ideas, people, culture and language.
Music, cars, trade, religion, wine and fashion are all examples of goods and services that have been impacted by globalization.
The first events that started this process can be seen in the colonization of many African and Asian nations by European powers since the 16th Century. For example, the British colonized the nations of India, Pakistan, Australia and New Zealand. In the case of India, resources were acquired and then transported back to Britain to fuel the growing Industrial Revolution. Since the British operated and controlled this trade, many British people lived in India, bringing aspects of British Culture to India such as British government, sports and architecture. That is, cultural and economic exchange took place between the nations as an example of Globalization.
This is one of the earliest explanations of Globalization. The same relationship between colonial countries and the colonies they exploited can be seen around the world (the Spanish in South America, the Portuguese and Germans in Africa to name a few).
Over time, this colonizer/colony relationship has changed. The patriarchal relationship of control that did once exist no longer does. Unfortunately, for many once colonized countries what remains is a cause for concern.
Firstly, the level of resources that can be utilized by these countries. The non-renewable resources that once did exist are no longer present and this causes problems for nations attempting to improve living standards for their populations.
Secondly, once the colonizing nation departed, they left an untrained and dependent population. The usual role of the indigenous population was as a cheap work force. The skills to continue existing industries in many of these nations were in low supply, again impinging the growth of these nations.
African nations seem particularly hard hit by these problems.
Globalization has existed for many centuries, but growth in globalization rocketed after World War 2 and the subsequent growth in technology. Despite this, the evidence of early globalization still clearly exists.