One main event that led to the political and religious changes in British North American from 1720-1770 would have been immigration after 1730. Approximately 500,000 Europeans, primarily from Germany, Scotland, and Ireland, immigrated during this time. As this immigration continued, much of the population would not have been original colonists (or their descendants, rather), so a shift in culture and religious beliefs would have occurred. Specifically, many of those immigrants would have been Catholic leading to a conflict in religion.
A second event would be the development of schools. As more schools developed, more people became intelligent. These schools began as religious institutions, but quickly shifted to become more secularized. In other words, the schools would have become more concerned with what was happening globally (politically, etc) and not have so much concern for religious meanings.
A third event, due to the crisis of many cultures in one place, would be the rise of religious concern. Each immigrant strove to find their "group" of similar religions. In other words, when a group of people enter another country, they face a choice--do I abandon my culture and become "normal" or resist the "normalcy" and maintain my cultural beliefs. At this time period, many people were clinging to their cultural beliefs because they lived with similar people (Irish with Irish, etc.).
Finally, the French and Indian War and King George's War, since they occurred partially in the New World, caused taxation on the colonists primarily in New England, which in turn caused the colonists to feel anger toward the England. Many colonists bcame disenchanted with being associated with the British crown. There was no representation for the colonies in England (and they didn't ever see the King because of the distance). Ultimately, the colonists felt great disdain and disconnect from the European governments (primarily British).
One more thing, the First Great Awakening was a religious awakening. More and more traveling pastors and revivalists would reach out to all sorts of people--minorities--and evoke strong emotions in crowds. This caused many people to feel strong reactions (mainly positive) toward religion and towards God. This would have occurred mainly in the 1760s.