Caesar was killed in the Curia of Pompey, a building used by the Roman Senate that sat at the eastern end of a huge complex built at the direction of Pompey the Great. The complex also contained a large portico and at the western end was the Theater of Pompey. The very western apex of the Theater touches the end of today's Campo de Fiori. The Theater was a large semi-circular structure. The Curia was located on what is today the street Via di Torre Argentina near where it meets Via Florida. Because the current buildings were built on top of the the old foundations of this complex a review of the area on Google Maps will show the circular layout of the theater and the sides stretching east toward the Curia. The location of Caesar's death is roughly where Google Maps shows a bus/trolley stop. Across the Via di Torre Argentina is the excavation of the Largo di Torre Argentina which gives an idea of how much lower in elevation ancient Rome was compared to today. After his death Caesar's body was carried about a half a mile to the eastern end of the Roman Forum at the present day Temple of Caesar, where his body was burned. At the western end of the forum was the rostrum used by Brutus and Marc Antony. Caesar's funeral pyre grew so big by people piling on combustible material that the local fire department had to intervene.
Gaius Julius Caesar was murdered on the Ides of March (15 March), 44 B.C., by a group of about 60 conspirators during the senate meeting in a location adjacent to the Theater of Pompey.
On the morning of his murder, Caesar's wife Calpurnia begged him not to attend the scheduled meeting as she had nightmares and she thought them to be premonitions about the threat to Caesar's life. Heeding her advice, Caesar decided not to go. However, conspirators who were waiting in the senate room got wind of this and sent Decimus Brutus (a close friend of Caesar and a conspirator) to convince Caesar to attend the meeting. Brutus convinced Caesar that dreams were silly and that the senate was readying to vote him king. Convinced by this, Caesar left for the Theater of Pompey. It is said that while traveling in his litter, he met the soothsayer, Spurinna (who originally warned him about the Ides), and said that "The Ides have come," to which she replied "Aye Caesar, but not gone." Caesar was also given a scroll with the assassination plot details in it, but could not read it during his litter ride.
As per the plan, Antonius (or Antony), a confidant of Caesar, was kept occupied outside the Theater, to prevent him from helping the Caesar. As Caesar took his customary seat in the senate room, Tillius Cimber approached him with 60 senators (all conspirators) and petitioned to pardon his exiled brother. He grabbed Caesar's purple robe and pulled it down, which was a signal to strike. The conspirators, who had hidden knives in the flowing folds of their togas, struck. Casca struck first from behind and others followed. In all, Caesar was stabbed 23 times and died due to blood loss from stab wounds.
Caesar's death paved the way for the Roman Empire.