Exposition, in literature, means the initial information given to readers that prepares them for the rest of the story. In the exposition readers get to meet the characters and see them interact in the story's setting (time and place). It leads into the rising action, where conflicts begin to emerge. Therefore, all early information provided in "The Adventure of the Speckled Band" is considered part of the exposition.
At the very beginning of the story, we find out that Dr. Watson, Sherlock Holmes's good friend, is narrating the events of this crime investigation. He tries to elevate readers' interest by explaining how unusual this particular detective case was:
Of all these varied cases, however, I cannot recall any which presented more singular features than that which was associated with the well-known Surrey family of the Roylotts of Stoke Moran.
We are also told that this case happens early the narrator's friendship with Sherlock Holmes; the two men are roommates at the time.
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