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The true essence of oligarchical rule is that a select number of people, a very few, rule the masses and control and dominate a society. In 1984the image of Big Brother is seen as and understood in a totalitarian way. Big Brother rules everything. He dominates Oceania by obtaining complete loyalty through fear and paranoia. He gazes from posters plastered everywhere, reminding the citizens that "Big Brother Is Watching You". However, we learn that Big Brother does not really exist as Winston is speaking with O'Brien. The image of Big Brother is simply used as a tool to manipulate the emotions of the citizens of Oceania by the people in power. This leads us back to the system of oligarchical rule, a small group ruling the masses.
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