What is the era Friedman refers to as Globalization 1.0?
You can find the answer to this in Chapter 1 (p. 9 in my copy of the book). What Friedman calls Globalization 1.0 is the time when Europeans first started to "discover" the New World. He says that Globalization 1.0 spans the time from 1492 (Christopher Columbus's first voyage) to around 1800.
During this time, he says, the world first started to shrink. It went from being a really large world to one that was more of a medium size.
He says that this era was an era of "muscle" -- one where the amount of physical power (muscle, wind, steam) a country could harness was what tended to make it powerful. He also says that countries (as opposed to companies) were the most important actors.