What are the art elements and three art principles used by Édouard Manet in the creation of his art piece A Bar at the Folies-Bergère?
In his painting A Bar at the Folies-Bergère, Édouard Manet uses the art element of texture to effectively render lace and marble in the bar room scene. He also uses texture to simulate the effect of the crowded room behind the barmaid. The element of space is used to show the depth of what is obviously an extremely large gathering room. Manet is an expert at the element of value which he uses to capture the radiating light in the bar, simmering off the chandelier, and reflecting off the polished marble surfaces and glass bottles. It is also in the chandelier that Manet shows off his exquisite use of color, pairing the color complements of blue and orange to achieve a beautiful shimmering effect.
The principle of proportion is used in this painting to achieve a sense of depth between the larger figures at the bar and the much smaller patrons of the bar that are congregating at a distance. Manet uses the principle of variety, painting a collection of many different objects and textures to hold our interest as we contemplate the paining.
Manet also effectively uses the principle of unity in this painting. Unity is a principle defined by the eNotes/Wikipedia page as "the quality of wholeness that is achieved through the effective use of the elements and principles of art." While the painting is not one that can be considered balanced due to the extra figures on the right, the horizontal and vertical lines of the background, coupled with the figures, and objects create a unified composition.