The first major effect geography had on ancient Greece had to do with agriculture. Much of Greece is rocky, relatively arid, and mountainous, which affects the types of crops that can be grown and animals that can be raised. One effect of this was to make Greece outstanding for production of olives and wine, which served as export commodities and led to extensive trade. The poor-quality soil and steeps slopes in many areas made Greece prone to deforestation and environmental degradation.
Because of the mountains separating parts of the Greek mainland, Greece evolved into many separate and often warring city-states rather than a unified nation.
Next, mountains make it difficult to travel by land in Greece. This led to many city-states focusing on sea travel for most forms of trade. Due to seasonal winds and weather, both trade and military activities were restricted to specific seasons.
Much of Greek sculpture and architecture was facilitated by the presence of high-quality marble, especially that found on the island of Paros.