The Boxer Protocol, which was signed in 1901, was a treaty between China's Qing Empire and the Eight-Nation Alliance, the international coalition of eight countries who sent military aid to China during the Boxer Rebellion. The Boxer Rebellion was an anti-Christian, anti-foreign uprising in China, and it was shut down with aid from the U.S., Italy, Japan, Russia, Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, and Germany. The Boxer Protocol ensured the execution of pro-uprising government officials, and allowed the Eight-Nation Alliance to station troops and collect war reparations in exchange for the aid the nations had provided. The reparations demanded by these nations cost more than a year of tax revenue to the Chinese government, so they raised taxes in order to try to pay the massive debt. For Europe, the impact of the Boxer Rebellion was the knowledge that colonizing China would not be the best approach. The European imperial powers chose reparations as an outcome to gain resources from China without the fear of another uprising, and even assisted China in one war against the Japanese in order to maintain the Chinese government's autonomy and ensure the continual payment of reparations.