During Robinson Crusoe's isolation on the island, he finds that he has access to food, fresh water, and supplies from another wrecked boat. As he is building a shelter and finding ways to survive, he begins to go through a religious conversion, which comes to a head during a severe fever and delirium. He dreams that an avenging angel berates him for not appreciating God's hand in his survival, and later, as he recovers, he remembers the angel's words and how they pertain to his situation:
It was not long after I set seriously to this work till I found my heart more deeply and sincerely affected with the wickedness of my past life. The impression of my dream revived; and the words, "All these things have not brought thee to repentance," ran seriously through my thoughts.
(DeFoe, Robinson Crusoe, eNotes eText)
The verse has two meanings in this context. First, Crusoe realizes that his past life is meaningless without the influence and redemption of God; even though he has sinned, religion offers him a path of absolution and the chance to continue his life as a better person. Second, Crusoe realizes that he has been continuously lucky, even with his shipwreck; he has food and water, and is able to survive. "All these things," given to him not by luck but by God, "have not brought him to repentance." In other words, he realizes that he has been ungrateful; God is asking him, in essence, "What more should I be expected to do to convert you?"