The Great Schism can refer to two separate events. The first is the East-West Schism of 1054. The second is the Western Schism of 1378-1417.
The effects of the Great Schism of 1054 had a profound impact on the entire history of the Catholic Church. It definitively set Rome as the central location of Catholic authority with the Pope as the Church's leader. It resulted in the permanently separate church hierarchy and ecclesiastical practices between the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Christianity. An immediate effect was that Italy was left vulnerable to attacks by the Normans. Pope Leo IX had hoped to form a common military alliance against the Normans, but the division meant that aid from the east never arrived. This led to the establishment of several Norman fiefdoms in Italy, which eroded the power of the Papacy for some time.
Feuds, some of them violent and deadly, occurred between Catholics and Eastern Orthodox Christians throughout the High Middle Ages. This includes the...
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