What is the dramatic importance of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern,the Players,and the Grave-diggers in William Shakespeare's Hamlet?  

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There is much in the plot of Hamlet that highlights proper behaviour for one's station in life, especially if you are of the royal family.  Gertrude and Claudius chastise Hamlet for his very un-correct display of grief in the very public Act I, scene ii and Polonius not only lectures Laertes about proper behaviour, but has him spied on to ensure that he is behaving as a man of his position should.

So, one of the importances of R&G is to demonstrate the "proper" way Hamlet should be behaving.  We can assume that they are very close in age and station to Hamlet, and they do whatever the king says, even strong-arming Hamlet out of Denmark as a part of a plot to end his life. All in allegiance to their king.  Acting out of blind allegiance is the last thing Hamlet would do.

As for the players, part of their purpose is to highlight Hamlet's inability to act on his feelings.  When he comments that one player is able to create (from his imagination) all the proper behaviour for nothing,

For Hecuba!

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