The domestic policy of Adams and Jefferson was many times driven by their backgrounds. Thomas Jefferson, the founder of the Republican Party, a Virginian planter, developed a domestic policy that promoted agricultural expansionism and a self-sufficient society. His policy is perhaps best summarized by stating that he advocated that America live within a "bubble." His intent was to do anything within his power to promote farming in the young nation and thereby promote trade amongst the states. He envisioned that the United States would not have to leave its own shores to acquire anything it needed. To secure and maintain this vision or policy, only a militia would be needed.
Jefferson's predecessor and close friend, John Adams, was of a completely different mind set and was considered to be a member of the opposite political party, which was known as the Federalist Party. It is of course important to note that he never considered himself to be a "party man" and had personal as well as professional issues with the Federalist leader, Alexander Hamilton. Never the less, Adams, a Bostonian, believed that the nation should be world capitalists. He envisioned the young nation developing into one that would promote manufacturing, shipping and world trade. To secure this vision a powerful military, especially a navy, would be needed. Therefore under his presidential guidance, he began to build our US Navy.
In summary, their domestic policies are drastically in contrast with one another. Jefferson's is an agricultural, self-sufficient, militia-based policy whereas Adams' is a world capitalistic, navy-based policy. Ultimately, when all was said and done, the United States would develop into a quality mix of both their domestic policies for future generations that were yet to come.