This is a good question.
Wisdom literature in the Bible is a type of genre. In the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible, several books fall into this genre: Song of Solomon, Job, Psalms, Ecclesiastes, and most of all Proverbs.
This genre is called wisdom literature, because it teaches about virtue and how to live a good life. Moreover, it is important to keep in mind that these principles require what the Bible says the fear of the Lord, as the foundation.
To put it in simpler terms, as the Proverbs states, the fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom. With this fear, that is, the desire to through off human autonomy, and the desire to know more about the principles of divinity, a person will grow in wisdom.
Another reason why it is called wisdom literature is because many of these are written by Solomon, who according to the Bible was the wisest man that ever lived on earth.