What action gets Rudy into trouble in The Book Thief?

Quick answer:

Rudy is constantly getting himself into trouble for doing things in defiance of the Nazis, such as pretending to be the Black runner Jesse Owens and refusing to attend the Hitler Youth meetings. He also steals a large potato at Thomas Mamer's grocery store and throws a rock at Franz Deutscher, the Nazi bully.

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The active and energetic Rudy is always getting himself into trouble, largely because he is too kind-hearted and good-natured to believe in Nazism.

Rudy, a runner, gets into trouble with his father because he covers himself in charcoal to look like Jesse Owens (a man he admires greatly) and runs in the street. Rudy's father is frightened that the Nazis will notice this and take Rudy away. Rudy doesn't fully understand that the Nazis consider Owens a subhuman for being Black. Rudy's father tries to explain to him that he needs to keep his anti-Hitler views to himself and to use his blond hair and blue eyes, prominent Aryan features, to help himself.

Rudy also gets into trouble when he is caught stealing the largest potato at Mamer's grocery story. He is able to get away with it by pleading with Mr. Mamer about how poor and hungry his family is. Rudy's teacher also happens to be in the store and backs up Rudy's story.

Rudy also gets into trouble with the good Nazi youth Franz Deutscher. Rudy won't give Franz Hitler's correct birthday, and he throws a rock at Franz. This leads to Franz beating him up and cutting his hair with a knife. Rudy also won't attend Hitler Youth meetings, which threatens his family with fines.

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