Understanding Conflict and War Vol. 1: The Dynamic Psychological Field, by R.J. Rummel
Violence and any attempt to deal with it should be considered a field phenomenon. It is an aspect of the Gestalt comprising our biopsychological nature, our sociocultural existence, and our environmental context. Our view of it depends on our ontological perspective, our attempts to understand it presuppose an epistemology, and our solutions manifest our ethical system.
Research by R. J. Rummel, whom I quote above, suggests that war and violence form a total concept that refers to as a Gestalt (i.e., Kurt Koffka, "The whole is other than the sum of the parts") comprised of physical-psychological perception, social and cultural experience, and "environmental context" (e.g., developed or developing country). He says the Gestalt concept of war and violence involves all of our most fundamental philosophical avenues of inquiry and lists them as ontological, epistemological and ethical systems.
Rummel suggests therefore that the solution to the reduction of the likelihood of the occurrence of war and violence rests in revolutionizing our most basic and most fundamental perspectives on life, thinking and living. Rummel implicates power, potentialities, latencies, psychological and dynamic spaces, behavior and expectations, and motivations as key areas where renovations of thought and perspectives will need to occur in order to reduce war and violence. This theorization accords with what psychiatrist Peter Kramer wrote in Against Depression.