The "old Turk" refers to the deposed Turkish sultan, Achmet III, who Candide meets in Chapter 26. It is clear that Achmet, and the other five former kings and rulers with whom Candide finds him, is used by Voltaire to satirise the aristorcracy, and in particular, the feeling they have that it is their "right" to rule. Note how Achmet III introduces himself to Candide:
I was Grand Sultan for many years; I dethroned my brother, my nephew dethroned me, my viziers lost their heads, and I am condemned to end my days in the old seraglio. My nephew, the Grand Sultan Mahomet, gives me permission to travel sometimes for my health, and I am come to spend the Carnival at Venice.
Although figures such as this deposed Sultan and the other kings believe that they possess the right to rule because of...
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