What does Old Major say is the problem with the animals's lives? What do they need to make life better?

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Old Major , the Karl Marx figure in this novel, insists that the misery of the animals' lives is due to their labor being exploited. The animals toil from dawn to dusk to grow the crops and lay the eggs that the humans, like Farmer Jones, then sell at a...

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Old Major, the Karl Marx figure in this novel, insists that the misery of the animals' lives is due to their labor being exploited. The animals toil from dawn to dusk to grow the crops and lay the eggs that the humans, like Farmer Jones, then sell at a profit. Yet almost none of that profit comes back to them. They are given just enough to eat to stay alive and housed in poor conditions, without heat or indoor plumbing. Further, once they are no longer able to work, they are sold to the glue factory to be killed.

In contrast, Old Major says, the humans live in ease and comfort on the profits of the hard work the animals do. This situation is unfair, he says, and will not change until the animals, at some future date, rise up and take control of the farm themselves. Then they can sell the goods they produce and use all the profits to make their own lives better.

Old Major envisions a time in which the animals can live happier lives, with more food, better shelter, and shorter work days, as well as old age retirement in green pastures after the revolution that is to come. This revolution arrive faster than the animals think, and for a very short time, they experience this bliss.

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In the opening chapter of the novella, old Major, the well-regarded prized white boar, wishes to communicate his strange dream with the other animals on the farm as they gather in the barn while Mr. Jones is sleeping. Old Major begins by elaborating on the miserable, laborious nature of life on the farm and mentions that no animal in England knows the meaning of true happiness. Old Major then questions why the animals' lives are so difficult when there is plenty of fertile soil and a possibility of food in abundance. He answers his own question by saying that humans are solely responsible for stealing the produce of their labor and making their lives miserable. Old Major reasons that Man is the primary enemy and argues that removing Man from the equation will solve all of the animals' problems.

Old Major proceeds to elaborate on the evil, greedy nature of Man and tells the animals that humans are the only creatures who consume and never produce. He continues to give numerous examples of how humans abuse animals and states that "no animal escapes the cruel knife in the end." According to old Major, all the animals have to do is get rid of humans in order to experience rich, comfortable lives. Old Major then encourages the animals to rebel against their human masters and finally take control of their own destinies. Essentially, old Major identifies Man as the animals' primary enemy and believes that rebelling against their human masters will instantaneously improve their lives.

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Old Major says that the only problem with the animals' lives is Man. Man, in the specific persona of Mr. Jones, the farmer, keeps them in slavery and steals almost everything they produce, allowing them only enough food to keep them alive for as long as they are useful to him.

Old Major is approximately analogous to Karl Marx in the allegory of Animal Farm and he is preaching the revolution. His point is that the animals live short, miserable lives, working hard every day. This is not inevitable, for the land is rich and fertile, and they could easily produce enough for themselves by doing only a fraction of the work they do now. The problem that blights their lives is the predatory class that "consumes without producing." Old Major, like Marx, gives numerous instances, applicable to the different animals. The cows have had to give up all the milk that should have nourished their calves and the hens have relinquished the eggs that should have hatched into chicks. He himself has been luckier than most, but none of them will escape a cruel death in the end.

The solution to the problem of Man, Old Major tells them, is Rebellion. They must either rebel against Man themselves or, should this prove impossible, pass his message on to future generations who will be able to carry out the Rebellion. As it turns out, the Rebellion is only a few months away and the animals all live to see it, except Old Major.

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For Old Major, the animals' biggest problem is that they have no freedom, no control over their lives. Every single aspect of their daily existence is controlled by the hated human oppressor, and for his benefit alone. In his speech, Old Major reels off a long list of grievances against humans, making it abundantly clear that he blames them for every bad thing that happens to the animals. As well as being factually inaccurate, Old Major's accusation foreshadows what will happen when the pigs take control of the farm and replace one form of tyranny with another. As we shall see, it's not just humans who are capable of inflicting appalling cruelty on animals, but other animals themselves.

Still, Old Major's convinced that if Mr. Jones is driven from the farm and the animals take control, then a true paradise on earth can be established, a vibrant community based on the principles of Animalism. To that end, the animals must rebel, rise up, and overthrow the hated human oppressor once and for all.

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The Old Major believes that the humans should not be running things. He has a dream in which the animals become the rulers of the world. He believes the only way that this is to be accomplished is by staging a rebellion. His ideas represent those of Karl Marx.

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