What does the material evidence tell us about the nature of the Indus Valley civilizatio?
The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) existed during the Bronze Age, a period exhibiting features of urban civilization. It was one of the most widespread regions of the Old World, situated in what is present-day Pakistan and northwest India. Harappa, one of the Pakistan digs, led to IVC being referred to as Harappan Civilization.
Appearing to be one of the first major urban areas in the region, IVC displayed knowledge and efficiency in its planning. Brick platforms and walls provided protection from the flood waters of the Indus and,Sarasvati Rivers. They also served to curtail military conflicts. Major emphasis was placed on ease of access to places of religious rituals, as well as a sophisticated sewage system. Their systems of sewage and drainage planning rival plans used in Pakistan today.
There is no evidence of any person, or center, of leadership. There is, however, great appearance of uniformity among such things as pottery, weights, and even the bricks used to build this immense civilization. While there were impressive granaries and bath houses and ports, there were no palaces or temples. In this land of more than 5 million people, all appeared to claim equal status.
It was found in Pakistan and the evidence says that they had a writing system, they had an underground drainage system and wells and a thoroughly urban city life. Their civilization rivaled that of nearby Sumeria
They had connections to the areas around the Mediterranean sea and most likely traded with those areas.
The civilization is thought to have died out about 1850 B.C.E because a key river that furnished its agricultural activities dried up.