What does Mark Twain mean in his statement about Austen's novels, relating his statement to Emma: Austen's novels make him feel "like a barkeeper entering the kingdom of heaven"? 

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This simile comes from a fragment of a critical opinion by Twain on Austen titled "Jane Austen." A fragment is a piece that was begun by an author and, for one reason or another, never completed. This Twain fragment is stored at the University of California-Berkeley. Twain made this remark in this fragment in relation to Pride and Prejudice and Sense and Sensibility but it may be applied to Emma as well because Austen wrote about the same social sphere--her own--in all her novels.

What this Twain simile means, in terms of its specific language, is that when Twain reads Austen, he feels as unrefined, unpolished, uncivilized as would a scroungy Mississippi River barkeeper upon first entering polished, shiny, orderly, well-mannered heaven. They'd both feel out of place, out of their element, overwhelmed by manners and speech they had never encountered before--and--slightly repulsed by it for it's strangeness and newness and for its opposition to everything they'd previously encountered. You might...

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