It's important to state from the outset that there's no definitive answer to this question. As a previous contributor has rightly noted, Kurtz is an enigmatic character, and so, inevitably, many of his words and actions are also suitably enigmatic. Thus any possible meaning we attach to his infamous postscript is purely speculative.
One possible interpretation of "exterminate all the brutes" could be that Kurtz, in a final moment of clarity, has recognized the unspeakable barbarism of the natives among whom he has lived and has ruled as their undisputed tribal chieftain. He has seen at first hand the darkness, the savagery and the sheer moral degradation of the natives; worse still, he has succumbed to their atavistic bloodlust. Although the natives worship Kurtz like a god, he is the one whose soul has been corrupted by contact with a strange, exotic culture; in a sense, the natives have ruled over him.
On this reading, then, Kurtz's final postscript serves as a warning for white Europeans not to become too deeply involved with the natives lest they lose their souls. He is not advocating a campaign of genocide or ethnic cleansing; he is simply urging his fellow members of the "civilized" world to suppress their more primitive urges, their "brutes," if you will: the urge to acquire more land; the urge to exploit the natives; the urge to impose European standards upon distant lands with their vastly different cultures and traditions. In short, Kurtz's last words constitute a forlorn, desperate plea for the discontinuation of the colonial project.