What does Jonas learn about what happens to the old in The Giver?

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In chapter 4, Jonas completes several volunteer hours at the House of the Old, where he bathes an older woman named Larissa. While Jonas is bathing Larissa, she tells him that they celebrated the release of an older gentleman named Roberto earlier that day. Larissa mentions that Roberto's entire life story was told before he was released and says that he gave a lovely good-bye speech before his close friends said a few moving words about him. Larissa also mentions that Roberto was ecstatic as he walked into the Releasing Room and through the mysterious doors.

Later on, Jonas is assigned to be the community's next Receiver of Memory and the Giver shows him a video of his father releasing an infant. Jonas is astonished and disturbed to discover that release is simply a euphemism for death after he witnesses his father give a defenseless infant a lethal injection. Overall, Jonas discovers that his highly-structured community practices euthanasia by killing the older citizens.

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There are a lot of things that Jonas learns about the old.  For example, he learns that they are hit with discipline wands when they misbehave, just like kids are.  But I think that you are talking about the fact that they get released when they are deemed to have lived out their usefulness.   Jonas learns this relatively early on when he is told about a Release ceremony that has happened at the House of the Old.  Later on, after he has become the next Receiver, he learns that "release" means killing.

So Jonas learns over the course of the book that old people get killed when they are no longer deemed useful to society.

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