What does Jack Merridew represent in Lord of the Flies? What do the "littleuns," Piggy, and Ralph represent?

In Lord of the Flies, Jack's character represents mankind's inherent evil and violent nature. Piggy represents rational thought, intelligence, and ingenuity. Ralph's character represents civilization, democracy, and order. The littluns represent the general public and innocence and naivety.

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Jack Merridew, the brutish choir boy, could be said to represent the evil and darkness that, according to the Christian doctrine of original sin, lurks within us all. Although Jack likes to pride himself on being a young English gentleman, in actual fact he's just a hair's breadth away from...

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Jack Merridew, the brutish choir boy, could be said to represent the evil and darkness that, according to the Christian doctrine of original sin, lurks within us all. Although Jack likes to pride himself on being a young English gentleman, in actual fact he's just a hair's breadth away from degenerating into outright savagery.

And that's precisely what he does. Jack's complacent belief in the civilized qualities of Englishmen proves to be so much flannel as he turns himself from a choir boy into a ruthless, blood-thirsty dictator. In doing so, he illustrates Golding's overriding point in the novel: that there's a fine line between civilization and barbarism.

Ralph at least tries to live up to the values of civilization by endeavoring to establish a rules-based order on the island. He represents what successive generations of British colonialists liked to think that they were doing when they conquered someone else's land. If Jack represents the sordid reality of colonialism, then Ralph can be seen as the embodiment of its bright, shining ideal.

Piggy is the voice of reason on the island. A practical, intelligent boy, he gets straight to the heart of a problem and immediately seeks rational solutions. He could be said to represent the rational element of the human soul, that part of us that separates us from the animals. Sadly, when faced with the concerted barbarism of Jack and his gang, Piggy's capacity for reason avails him nothing, an illustration perhaps of the limits of our reasoning faculties in dealing with the very depths of human evil.

Finally, we have the littluns, the youngsters, who, with their habitual credulity, could be said to represent man in his primitive state. Their unswerving belief in the existence of a mythical Beast that's supposed to be running wild across the island is a prime illustration of this.

Such gullibility and superstition are qualities that were habitually ascribed to Indigenous peoples in colonialist discourse and were used as a justification for the dominance and control of white Europeans. The proto-colonialist Jack certainly sees the littluns' belief in the existence of the Beast as giving him the right to control them.

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Jack is depicted as a violent, cruel adolescent who resents Ralph for being elected chief and starts his own tribe of savages on the other end of the island. Jack's character represents mankind's inherent evil and violent nature. Jack rejects civilization in favor of anarchy and dedicates his time to hunting pigs throughout the island. Jack also bullies Piggy, threatens Ralph, tortures Wilfred, and manipulates the boys' fear of the beast. Jack leads by fear and intimidation and even orders his hunters to kill Ralph at the end of the story.

Piggy is depicted as an intelligent, overweight boy who promotes civility and continually argues with Jack over his affinity for hunting pigs. Piggy is by far the smartest boy on the island, and his character represents intellect, rational thought, and ingenuity. Despite his overweight physique, myopia, and asthma, Piggy's intelligence makes him extremely valuable to Ralph, and he relies on him for protection from Jack.

Ralph's character represents civilization, democracy, and order. In the opening chapter of the story, Ralph is elected chief and he tries to establish an organized, civil society where each boy has various responsibilities and contributes to their makeshift community. Unfortunately, the boys dismiss Ralph's orders and gradually transform into savages. Although Ralph has good intentions, he is not a born leader like Jack or intelligent like Piggy.

The littluns are the youngest boys on the island and spend most of their time playing in the sand and eating fruit. They are easily frightened, have no opinions, and wander aimlessly on the beach. They occupy the lowest position on the island's social hierarchy and represent the general public. They also help characterize and enhance the primary characters of the story and symbolically represent innocence and naivety.

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In Lord of the Flies, Jack represents the savagery or evil in man. He loses his ability to remain civilized while he is stranded on the island. He gives in to his innate savagery and becomes dehumanized. He becomes a wretched evil person. He becomes blood thirsty and slaughters pigs unmercifully. He laughs and shakes the blood from his hands after killing a sow. He laughs as Roger probes the sow's anus with his spear. Jack laughs as Roger twists and puts all of his weight on the spear while the sow screams in agony:

Jack begins to rub the blood on his hands onto Maurice, and then they notice Roger withdraw his spear. They become hysterical because he had pinned the sow by driving the spear through its anus. They reenact the slaughter until they grow tired.

Then, Jack hangs the sow's head on a stick to represent the Lord of the Flies. He becomes cruel in his killing of the sow. Then he leads his mighty hunters into a hunting-dance frenzy. During the dance frenzy, Simon comes crawling out of the woods and Jack and his hunters jump on him and kill him with their bare hands and teeth. No doubt, Jack represents the most evil nature a man can have--a complete lust for blood and the power of the hunt:

He represents leadership by intimidation and rebelliousness. By the end he is compared to an “ape” and called a “savage.”

Ralph, Piggy and the littluns represent innocence. They are the good that is found in mankind. They despise Jack's and his blood thirsty hunters' actions. Ralph and Piggy try to keep order on the island, but it is hopeless to change Jack and his hunters. In particular, Ralph tries to get everyone to build shelters and a fire to quicken their rescue:

[Ralph] is elected leader and initiates necessity to build shelters and a fire. He represents leadership by common sense and governmental authority.

Ralph and Piggy represent sense and order in all the chaos created by Jack and his hunters. Piggy dies a senseless death at the hand of Roger who is utterly cruel. By the end of the story, Ralph is being hunted by Jack and his hunters. Ralph and his representation of good versus evil is losing the battle. If the naval officer had not arrived when he did, Ralph very well may have killed by Jack and his cruel hunters.

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