The scene where Baba is at the border and the Russian guard wants to rape a young woman is a description of how Baba taught Amir what was good and right. Amir learned shame when his father stood up and scolded the guard. Looking at the Russian, he tells Karim, "Ask him where his shame is" (100).
On the other hand, he tragically passed on the trait of guilt. Baba felt guilty because he was Hassan's real father, as a result of an illicit affair with his servant's wife. He constantly praised Hassan, and not Amir. Later, Amir felt guilty about Hassan's rape by Assef, in which Amir did nothing. So, he used the situation to plot against Hassan, which caused Hassan and his father to leave Baba's house. Consequently, Amir was tormented by his guilt throughout his life until he returned to Afghanistan to rescue Sohrab.