One of the most significant and pivotal events of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin is the death of Evangeline St. Clare, who is called Eva.
Eva is presented as a Christ-like figure. She strongly disagrees with slavery and says she would happily die if it meant slaves would be freed. This is comparable to the willingness of Christ to die for the sins of mankind. Eva is kind, innocent, pure, and a devout Christian. She inspires those around her to do and be better. She has a profound impact on Tom's life and holds a special place in his heart.
Eva is sick and ultimately succumbs to her illness. Her condition is not explicitly stated in the novel, but we are given clues as to what ails and eventually kills her. Within a six-month period, Eva loses a significant amount of weight. Her skin becomes pale. She experiences shortness of breath and fatigue. She is no longer able to engage in physical activities, such as running in the garden, because she becomes exhausted before long. She has a persistent cough that does not respond to medication, and she develops a fever. Given these clues, we can deduce that Eva suffers from (and dies from) tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis, previously known as "consumption," is disease caused by a bacterial infection of the lungs. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), tuberculosis was one of the three leading causes of death at the turn of the twentieth century.