Chapter 1 discusses Atticus' profession and the type of characters he has had to deal with in practicing criminal law. The description of the Haverfords he defended demonstrates a stark contrast morally and intellectually between Atticus and the people he serves.
Chapter 13 welcomes Aunt Alexandra, a proud Finch who relishes in their upper class reputation. She tries to get Atticus to discuss with Scout and Jem their gentle breeding, and he ultimately fails to get Alexandra's point across. That's because Atticus is a moral man who realizes doing the right thing is better than being in the right social class.
Chapters 22-23 gives the Finch family time to see the black community praise Atticus' efforts. Maudie also points out to the children that their father is the moral backbone of the county. He does the right thing when everyone else is scared to do so. Throughout the book he maintains a positive relationship with the town, but stands for justice in spite of others encouraging him not to for fear of what others may think. Sound familiar? It's not always popular to do the right thing.
The reader learns that Atticus has a long standing history in Alabama. His ancestor was Simon Finch who was a fur trapper. Simon had also owned three slaves. He had married, had daughters, and died filthy rich. The battle between the North and South cost the decedents their inheritance with the exception of land. However, Atticus had taken his family and moved to Maycomb.
In Macomb, Atticus set up practice as a lawyer. His first cases were two men who had committed second degree murder. Atticus lost both cases and found out that he did not like criminal law. He turned to practicing economic law and helped put his brother through college.
Because of Aticus' relationship to Simon Finch, he was related to most of the people that lived in Maycomb.
Maycomb is a small southern town. Everyone knows everyone else. People move at a slow pace with nowhere to go. Incomes are mostly poor as the town has few jobs to offer. The streets are unpaved and made of red clay. Atticus owns a house on Main Street.
Atticus has two children, Jem, a boy, and Scout, a girl. Jem has an arm that is slightly shorter and pulled in on one side of his body. Scout is outspoken and follows her brother around. Attiucs married late in life. They ahd two children and his wife died. Scout never knew her, but Jem did and sometimes became quiet when he ws thinking about her.