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There are multiple literary devices used in Jeffers' poem "Hurt Hawks."
In line one, a metaphor is seen. A metaphor is a comparison made between two unlike objects (not using "like" or "as"). The metaphor, therefore, is the comparison made between a broken pillar and wings of a hawk.
In line two, a simile is seen. A simile is like a metaphor, but uses either "like" or "as" in the comparison. In this line, the broken wing of the hawk is compared to a banner.
The wing trails like a banner in defeat.
In line seven, personification is exemplified. Personification is the giving of human characteristics to non-living/non-human things. Therefore, when the poet states that the hawk remembers freedom, he is giving the hawk characteristics typically allotted to only humans (given humans can remember freedom--this is a trait animals normally cannot).
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