In the opening chapter of Orwell's classic novella Animal Farm, Old Major holds a meeting inside the barn at night, where he gives a moving speech encouraging the animals to rebel against their oppressive, selfish human masters. Old Major begins by stating that their lives are miserable, laborious, and short. He also mentions that no animal in England is free or knows the meaning of genuine happiness and leisure. Old Major then asks if their lives of slavery and hardship are simply the order of the natural world and elaborates on the numerous resources on the farm, which are primarily consumed and sold by humans.
Old Major then blames all of the animals' problems on humans and states that Man is their only real enemy. He goes on to mention that Man is the only creature that consumes without producing, demands that they work all day, feeds them the bare minimum, and keeps everything they produce. In addition to making their lives miserable and selfishly keeping everything they produce, Old Major informs the animals that none of them will escape the knife in the end. After elaborating on the oppressive tyranny of human beings, Old Major encourages the animals to rebel against their masters and offers them several precepts to live by, which the pigs eventually turn into the founding principles of Animalism. Shortly after Old Major dies, the animals suddenly rebel against Mr. Jones by expelling him from the farm.