In the book Night Women by Edwidge Danticat, what do some of the phrases explain that help the reader understand what's happening in the story and that help come to a conclusion about the narrator?  What conclusion do those phrases draw?

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Actually, the full book is called Krick? Krack! and only one part of it is called "Night Women," so I will assume that you are speaking about the entire collection and give you some pertinent quotes from there.  Generally, the entire book is about women of limited economic means who are trying to earn a living.  In specific reference to your question, these quotations show that women of limited means can still look to the positive.

No, women like you don't write. They carve onion sculptures and potato statues. They sit in dark corners and braid their hair in new shapes and twists in order to control the stiffness, the unruliness, the rebelliousness.

In this quotation, we see that women of limited of economic means are truly limited in their livelihood.  Here is can be seen that writing is certainly an intellectual pursuit and not something to be attempted by any character in "Night Women."  Instead, they are banished to "dark corners" to braid hair and carve statues out of onion and potato:  completely non-intellectual pursuits.  Above all, they are to curb their rebellion and monitor their behavior.

I also know there are timeless waters, endless seas, and lots of people in this world whose names don't matter to anyone but themselves. I look up at the sky and I see you there.

This is a quotation about how small we are in the vastness of the world.  This is a world of "timeless waters" and "endless seas."  These waters and seas are both vast, so much so that one can be lost in then.  Further, the world is so big that one name, such as the one she mentions, can be lost in the vast scheme of society.  The irony is, as the speaker looks up into the vast sky, she sees "you there," meaning that her subject is not lost in the vastness mentioned in the first part of the quotation.

People are just too hopeful, and sometimes hope is the biggest weapon of all to use against us. People will believe anything.

Such is Edwidge Danticat's famous quote about hope.  Here we see that hope is something that can be used against people (as opposed to the usual idea that hope is a helpful thing).  Here Danticat admits that people are gullible, accepting anything that will help them grab onto the positive.

All anyone can hope for is just a tiny bit of love, like a drop in a cup if you can get it, or a waterfall, a flood, if you can get that too.

Here Danticat mentions the one thing that people truly can hope for:  love.  Specifically, this quote is about the degree of intensity of love that a person can have.  Note Danticat's wording of a "drop" or a "cup" or a "waterfall" or a "flood."  Any amount makes life worth living.

All of these quotations show that the speaker recognizes limitations but looks forward to the positive parts of life.

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