These are the three basic types of cell precursors in fetal development. As the zygote develops, initially all cells are the same. But as development progresses, cells become specialized, and the three types you have listed give rise to specific tissues. The link I have added below spells the types out specifically, using a nice graphic.
In general, ectoderm develops into parts of the skin, the brain and the nervous system. Mesoderm gives rise to bones, muscles, the heart and circulatory system, and internal sex organs. Endoderm turns into the inner lining of some systems, and some organs such as the liver and pancreas.
The endoderm is one of the germ layers formed during animal embryogenesis. Cells migrating inward along the archenteron form the inner layer of the gastrula, which develops into the endoderm
The mesoderm germ layer forms in the embryos of animals more complex than cnidarians, making them triploblastic. During gastrulation, some of the cells migrating inward contribute to the mesoderm, an additional layer between the endoderm and the ectoderm.
The ectoderm is the start of a tissue that covers the body surfaces. It emerges first and forms from the outermost of the germ layers.