What is the direct characterization of Monsieur Loisel in "The Necklace"?

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Direct characterization occurs when an author tells you what a character is like though narration. Indirect characterization shows you through action what a character is like.

In "The Necklace," Maupassant tells us that Monsieur Loisel is a minor clerk with a government ministry. We learn that he is "exultant" and expects his wife to be pleased when he comes home with an invitation for a great social event thrown by the Ministry of Public Instruction he works for. The narrator also tells us that Monsieur Loisel is "stupefied" and at a loss when he is wife begins to cry and tells him she has nothing to wear to such an event. We are told he is "heartbroken." We also learn that when his wife asks for 400 francs to equip herself for the party, he sacrifices the gun he was planning to buy with the money so that she can have new clothes.

From all of this, we learn that Monsieur Loisel loves his wife and wants very much for her to be happy. He knows she is discontent and makes sacrifices to try to please her. He comes across as a very kind and upright person.

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Direct characterization occurs when the narrator of the novel or story describes in great detail what is the physical description of the character. This includes the character's unique traits as well as any visible behaviors that make the character stand out.

In the story "The Necklace" Monsieur Loisel is first described as a

little clerk of the Ministry of Public Instruction

We are also told that he wants to get a gun, that he looks bewildered at his wife's issues and that, when he does not find the necklace that his wife lost in the party he is directly described a well.

Loisel returned at night with a hollow, pale face. He had discovered nothing.

It is mainly indirect characterization that we get regarding Monsieur Loisel: from his complaisance, the tolerance of his wife, and the happiness that he seems to have from the simplest things leads the reader to realize that he is, in fact, a good man who paired up with a completely wrong woman.

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