Cognitive Psychology

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What are the different types of memory systems in long-term memory?

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Long Term Memory (LTM) is divided into two categories, one being the explicit LTM and the other being the implicit LTM.

The explicit LTM deals with with preconscious memory, which contends the storing of information, details and facts that may not always be present in our minds, but that we can still retrieve them at will.

Explicit LTM is also known as declarative. The reason why it is called "declarative" is because it is memory that can be obtained through discourse (discursive), and by eliciting it (elucidatory). Declarative, or explicit, memory contains every single memory in our minds, from specific episodes of our lives (episodical memory),to our memories about our world, as we know it within our own, personal context (semantic memory).

Implicit LTM deals with all the activities that we do which would need to follow a specific series of steps. As a result, we need to memorize and remember every step of the process in order to conduct the activity. "Muscle memory", and "Remembering by Doing" are examples of this type of LTM.  In contrast to explicitly memory, implicit memory does not involve discourse, nor willful eliciting. It happens through a combination of kinesthetic and cognitive activity.

Implicit LTM is also known as procedural. The meaning of "procedural" implies that the memory is created through the consistent repetition of a series of processes. In another contrast with explicit memory, implicit memory is unconscious rather than preconscious. This means that whatever processes take place are done almost automatically with the information that we have trained ourselves to retrieve through kinesthetic activity.

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