What different figures of speech are in Shakespeare's Sonnet 162?
ANAPHORA: the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of clauses or verses.
*Line 2: "LOVE is not LOVE..."
* Lines 9,11: both begin with "LOVE"
* In general, Shakespeare uses a kind of semi-anaphora throughout this poem, by using a word and then very soon using a variation of the same word:
*Line 3: "ALTERS when it ALTERATION finds"
* Line 4: "Bends with the REMOVER to REMOVE"
This device is related to:
a) ALLITERATION: the repetition of an initial consonant sound (like "Peter Piper Picked a Peck of Pickled Peppers")
b) ASSONANCE: the repetition of vowel sounds "inside" a word (JAck's fAst frAnks, JEan's spEEdy clEAners)
There are lots of figures of speech in this sonnet, as in any other. I'll list a few, others might see other things...
- Alliteration. You can see this in "alters... alteration" and "remover to remove"
- Metaphors. Lots of them. Love is a stationary mark, it is a star. People are wandering barks (ships).
- Personification. Love is seen to act like a person when it is actually not an animate object. It has a certain life span, it looks at storms without being shaken.
All of these are figures of speech.