In any subject of teaching, some level of choice is needed between teacher- centeredness and learner centeredness. On one hand, the former makes the presumption that the learning process is more traditionalist, with the teacher acting as the center of knowledge. This approach involves more teacher direction to students, who act in accordance to what the teacher says needs to be done. The learner centered approach creates a new understanding of the roles of teacher and student. In this approach, the teacher is more of a facilitator while students take a more active role of creating learning opportunities within the curriculum. The teacher lays out what is to be done, and the student selects how they want to approach such moments. In any content, the teacher has to make some particular decisions as to the moments where the presentation of material is done with the teacher being the center of learning or if the student's learning will be accomplished with a less traditionalist approach.
Teacher-centered instruction places the teacher as the one who dispenses information, facilitates discussion, and directs student learning. So, for example, a lecture is an example of teacher-centered instruction. Within a English as a Foreign Language class, the teacher would provide vocabulary words for students to memorize, for example.
Learner-centeredness is providing opportunities for the learner to direct his or her own learning. So, having students generate questions that drive the lesson plan, and a socratic seminar style discussion illustrate methods that are learner centered. In an English as a Foreign Language course, you might have students enter into the classroom and place markers on items they would like to learn as vocabulary.
Essentially, the learner-centeredness instruction empowers studetns to direct their learning.