What are the differences between de Tocqueville's analysis of a democratic or bourgeois society, as seen in Democracy in America, and that of Karl Marx?
Marx dismisses the "habits of the heart" tocqueville addresses
In Democracy in America, Tocqueville writes at length about how egalitarian American society is. He sees American society as very democratic and open. To Marx, this sort of egalitarianism and openness is just an illusion. Marx would argue that the ideology of egalitarianism that Americans talked about and felt was just something that the bourgeoisie used to justify and to cover up their domination of the working class. He would say that the equality that Tocqueville saw was not real and that it was all a facade to cover up for the inherently exploitative nature of capitalist society.