DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid while RNA stands for ribonucleic acid. Each of these nucleic acids is made up of the monomer nucleotides. A nucleotide consists of a sugar, a phosphate groupe and a nitrogenous base. There are three main differences between DNA and RNA.
The first difference between DNA and RNA is they have different sugars that make up their nucleotides. DNA is made of deoxyribose sugar while RNA is made of ribose sugar. This is in their name so it should be easy to remember.
The second difference between DNA and RNA is that DNA is double stranded while RNA is only single stranded.
The third difference between DNA and RNA is they have one different nitrogenous base that makes up their nucleotides. DNA has the bases A, T, G, and C. While RNA has A, U, G, and C. (A = adenine, T= thymine, G= guanince, C= cytosine, and U = uracil).
Another difference between DNA and RNA is that DNA cannot leave the nucleus while RNA can. This is how the rest of the cell gets the instructions they need. RNA copies DNA in the process of transcription and then takes it to a ribosome to be translated. This allows the cell to make proteins based on the DNA information.
Another difference is that there is only one type of DNA while there are three different types of RNA. There is mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA. mRNA stands for messenger RNA which copies DNA and leaves the nucleus. rRNA is the ribosomal RNA which holds the mRNA in place during translation and forms peptide bonds between amino acids. tRNA is transfer RNA which brings amino acids to the ribosome/mRNA to be chained together and make a protein during translation.
The differences between DNA and RNA are a follows:
DNA (Deoxyribose sugar) is found in the nucleus consists of genetic material. 1) It is nucleic acid. 2) It gives genetic instructions to cells and is part of the development of living organisms. 3) It is double stranded and is a long strand molecule.
RNA (Ribonucleic acid) is a nucleic acid polymer (1). It takes the information provided by DNA and changes it into proteins (2). It is single stranded and is also a long strand molecule. (3) It is less stable than DNA. (4)