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What differences are there between the view that people are born into a culture versus the opinion that one becomes a member of a culture through a process of learning?

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There is not necessarily any conflict between the idea that people are born into a culture and the idea that one becomes a member of a culture through a process of learning. The latter statement is clearly true, and the former is also true as long as it only means that a child is born to parents who are part of a particular culture, and this is the culture they will acquire. Much of their acculturation will take place without their knowing or thinking about it (see attachment below).

The fallacy which may be associated with the first idea is that culture is genetically acquired so that, for instance, a baby from an American Anglo-Saxon Protestant culture is already an Anglo-Saxon Protestant at birth. This notion, which has no foothold in sociology or anthropology, has been disproved repeatedly by cases of children who have been brought up in cultures other than those of their parents.

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