Transpiration is the movement of water vapor from the leaves to the outside environment through the stomates. When the stomates open, heat and wind cause water molecules to escape the leaf as water vapor. When this occurs, this leaves room for more water to move upward in the vascular tissue known as xylem. Capillary action helps this process to occur also. Translocation refers to movement of substances produced in the leaves, to other areas of the plant that require those substances. An example would be carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis in the leaves can be sent to non-photosynthetic places in the plant through vascular tissue known as phloem cells. Both xylem and phloem cells are found in vascular bundles in the veins, that may be distributed in the roots, stems and leaves in a circular, or scattered pattern.