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What is the difference between phonology and phonetics?

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Phonology and phonetics are both branches of linguistics that have to do with sound. However, they differ in the approaches they take towards the study of sounds in languages.

Phonology is the study of how speech sounds form patterns in languages. The reason that languages around the world sound different is because their speakers organize sounds in diverse ways to form words and syllables. Phonology looks at how speech sounds become organized in the minds of speakers and are used to represent meaning. In other words, phonology deals with abstract principles of language.

On the other hand, phonetics is the study of the physical production and classification of sounds. For instance, phonetics looks at the tongue, lips, teeth, and voice box's muscles and how they interact with each other to produce sounds. Phonetics is integral in the learning and teaching of languages, and it is also useful in disciplines such as forensics, in which it is sometimes necessary to identify voices in recordings.

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Phonetics is the study of sounds made by the human voice, specifically in speech. Therefore, phonetics looks at how sounds are made, what affects their production, etc. A particular language is not the necessarily the focus of phonetics, but rather the sounds produced by a speaker. 

Phonology is a branch of linguistics that studies how sounds are used in a language. This branch can include phonetics in its studies.

Specifically, phonetics studies the sounds of speech of any language and phonology studies the patterns of speech within and/or between language(s). Phonetics forms the basis for phonology and phonology is the basis for further studies in other aspects of speech such as morphology, syntax, discourse, etc.  Phonology uses phonetics to interpret perceptions made by speakers and listeners in relation to the sounds and how those sounds are significant in speech.