The chemical difference between natural sugar and artificial sweeteners is based upon what atoms of elements are bound together as molecules in the artificial sweetener as contrasted with the composition of natural sugar. Molecules of natural sugar are composed of atoms of hydrogen and oxygen. Artificial sweeteners may or may not include hydrogen or oxygen. Instead, depending on the type or brand, they may include carbon, sulphur, or chlorine. The chemical composition of the artificial sweeteners relative to natural sugar does not necessarily affect the perception of taste. “Sweetness” is still perceived on the tongue.
Let's look at the formula of sugar and sweeteners such as saccharin are known:
Sold "saccharine" is a hydrated sodium salt, which is 300-500 times sweeter than sugar. Saccharin is not absorbed by the body (with urine).
Аs you can see a clear difference in the chemical structure of sugar and saccharin.