Basically the photosynthesis process is the inverse of the respiration process. In photosynthesis carbohydrates and oxygen are produced starting only from CO2 and H20 with the help of solar energy having as mediator (catalyst) chlorophyll. In respiration carbohydrates are burnt in oxygen to produce energy, CO2 and water. Therefore in photosynthesis complex molecules are produced starting from basic molecules and energy, while in respiration these complex molecules are broken into much simpler molecules to produce energy.
The two processes can both be represented by the equation:
`C_6H_12O_6 +6O_2 harr "energy" + 6CO2+ 6H2O`
For respiration the direction of the reaction is to the right, for photosynthesis the direction of the reaction is to the left.
While respiration is encountered in all living organisms (plants and animals) photosynthesis is only an attribute of plants, because it needs the presence of chlorophyll to make the reaction possible. If we refer only to plants, both respiration and photosynthesis processes are encountered, but while photosynthesis is prevalent during the daylight hours, only the respiration process is present during night. Therefore plants produce manly oxygen during day and mainly CO2 during night. (This is why is not recommended to have a plant next to your bed).
Another difference between the two processes is that respiration takes place in the cytoplasm in the living cells, while the photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts of plant cells.
Photosynthesis is a process through which plants produce their food i.e. glucose and oxygen by using only source light energy from sun.
Respiration is the process in which air is inhaled and exhaled i.e. breathing.
Difference between Photosynthesis and Respiration:-
- Photosynthesis takes place in chlorophyll cells where as, respiration takes place in all living things either green (chlorophyll cells) or non-green.
- Photosynthesis equation is 6CO2 + 12H2O + light --> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H20 where as, Respiration equation is 6O2 + C6H12O6 --> 6CO2 +6H2O + ATP (energy)
- Photosynthesis occurs in light only where as, in respiration it doesn't matter whether it is dark or light.
- In Photosynthesis carbon dioxide is absorbed and oxygen is released where as, in Respiration oxygen is absorbed and carbon dioxide is released.
- In photosynthesis Carbon dioxide and water combine in presence of sunlight to produce glucose and oxygen where as, in Respiration glucose is broken down into water and carbon dioxide.
- There are 2 stages in Photosynthesis: Light dependent reaction and Calvin cycle where as, there are 4 stages in Respiration: Glycolysis, Linking Reaction, Krebs cycle, Electron Transport chain.
- Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts where as, respiration occurs in cytoplasm